Yearly Archives: 2013

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The Boeing F/A-18E and F/A-18F Super Hornet are both variants of the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet fighter jet. Carrier-based and twin-engined, the F/A-18E and F are larger and more sophisticated than their predecessors, the F/A-18C and D Hornet. The F/A-18E is a single seat fighter, while the F/A-18F features a pilot and co-pilot sat in tandem. Both variants of the Super Hornet carry a 20mm cannon, as well as air-air and air-surface armaments. They can also carry a maximum of five external fuel tanks, and can even act as an airborne refuelling tanker if required.

With a maximum speed of Mach 1.8 and a range of 1,275 nautical miles, the Super Hornet is both faster and more versatile than previous incarnations of the Hornet. It features a total of eleven weapons hardpoints: two at the wingtips, six under the wing and three under the fuselage, allowing it to take on a variety of different combat roles. Common armaments for the Super Hornet include the AIM-9 Sidewinder and AIM-7 Sparrow air-air missiles, AGM-65 Maverick air-surface missiles, and the Paveway range of laser guided bombs. Laser targeting pods can be fitted to the aircraft’s hardpoints if required.

Currently in service with the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) and US Navy, the Super Hornet entered production in 1995. Since then, over 500 of the aircraft have been built, at a cost of $66.9 million per unit. The aircraft entered service with the US Navy in 1999, and the RAAF in 2010.

The Super Hornet began life as the Hornet 2000 project, a prototype version of the regular F/A-18 Hornet designed to take larger engines and an increased payload. McDonnell Douglas (later taken over by Boeing) pitched the Super Hornet to the US Navy as a replacement for the ageing Grumman A-6 Intruder and LTV A-7 Corsair II, as the Navy’s original planned replacement, the McDonnell Douglas A-12 Avenger, had run into budgetary problems and was likely to be cancelled. The Navy liked the upgraded Hornet, and placed their initial order for the plan in 1992. The Super Hornet also ended up replacing the F-14 Tomcat, meaning that Hornet variants made up the Navy’s entire complement of fighters until the early 21st century.

  • Maximum speed: Mach 1.8+ (1,190 mph, 1,900 km/h) at 40,000 ft (12,190 m)
  • Range: 1,275 nmi (2,346 km) clean plus two AIM-9s
  • Combat radius: 390 nmi (449 mi, 722 km) for interdiction mission
  • Ferry range: 1,800 nmi (2,070 mi, 3,330 km)
  • Service ceiling: 50,000+ ft (15,000+ m)
  • Rate of climb: 44,882 ft/min (228 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 94.0 lb/ft² (459 kg/m²)
  • Thrust/weight: 0.93
  • Design load factor: 7.6 g

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The Sukhoi PAK-FA is a Russian fifth generation twin-engine fighter jet. It is scheduled to be introduced in 2016, with a total of 60 production planes currently on order by the Russian Air Force. Its T-50 prototype first flew in 2010, with a second prototype entering its testing phase in early 2011. Once it is released it is intended to supersede the Mikoyan Mig-29 and Sukhoi Su-27 as the Russian military’s go-to interceptor aircraft. It will also form the basis for the Sukhoi/HAL FGFA, a joint venture between Sukhoi and India’s Hindustan Aeronautics Limited which is intended to provide the Indian Air Force with a fifth generation fighter of its own by 2022. At present, no other nations are in the running to purchase the aircraft, with China opting to develop its own stealth fighter.

Technical specifications regarding the PAK FA are somewhat limited, as many aspects of the aircraft are highly classified by the Russian military. However, it is known to incorporate stealth technology, and is able to cruise at a speed of over Mach 1. Its tail fins are of particular interest to the aerospace community, as they are fully movable rather than being fitted with conventional rudders. This unique tail design is thought to give the aircraft greater manoeuvrability than the American F-22 Raptor, although this may come at a cost of reduced stealth capability. The PAK FA’s fuselage is mostly comprised of titanium alloy.

Powered by two Saturn AL-41F1 turbofans, the PAK FA has a maximum speed of over Mach 2, and a service ceiling of 20,000 metres. The T-50 prototype was not fitted with any guns as standard, but it is possible that the production version of the aircraft will have either single or dual cannon fitted, possibly the Gryazev-Shipunov Gsh-301 30mm model. As with many stealth aircraft, the PAK FA has weapons hardpoints mounted in internal bays as well as in a traditional wing-based configuration. In additional to its six external hardpoints, its two fuselage bays can carry three R-27 air-air missiles or two R033 air-air missiles each. It is thought to use the advanced AESA N050 avionics system.

  • Maximum speed: Mach 2+, 2,100-2,600 km/h (1,300-1,560 mph) ; at 17,000 m (55774.3 ft) altitude
  • Cruise speed: 1,300-1,800 km/h (808-1,118 mph)
  • Ferry range: 5,500 km (3,417 mi)
  • Service ceiling: 20,000 m (65,000 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 350 m/s (68,900 ft/min)
  • Wing loading: 330-470 kg/m2 (67-96 lb/ft2)
  • Thrust/weight: 1.19
  • Maximum g-load: 9+ g

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The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is a fifth-generation, single-seat multirole fighter jet with stealth technology. A true multirole fighter, it is able to undertake both air and ground assault missions, as well as reconnaissance tasks. It has three distinct variants: the F-35C, a carrier-based version; the F-35B, a short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) version; and the F-35A, which takes off and lands in a conventional manner.

The Lightning II is derived from the Lockheed Martin X-35, which was the end result of the Joint Strike Fighter program. Joint Strike Fighter was an international effort between the US and its closest allies, and as such the F-35 is more of a collaborative project than many comparable fighter jets. The international consortium of companies working on it is headed up by Lockheed Martin.

As of early 2013, the F-35 is still not in active service. It first flew in 2006, but currently in limited production only. When it is eventually introduced, the US Marine Corps, Navy and Air Force plan to purchase 2,443 F-35s, replacing the majority of the US military’s current fighter contingent. The other Joint Strike Fighter nations also have options on the F-35, with the UK, Italy and Canada amongst those who may elect to take the plane on.

The F-35B is particularly notable for its propulsion system. This STOVL variant of the plane is fitted with the Rolls Royce LiftSystem, a specially designed nozzle on its Pratt & Whitney F135 engine which allows it to angle thrust directly downwards in a similar way to the now-obsolete Harrier GR8. The LiftSystem is significant in that it renders the F-35B the first supersonic STOVL plane. However, the complexities of the system mean that the F-35B has a fuel capacity one third less than the conventional takeoff F-35A.

The F-35 is armed with a General Dynamics GAU-22/A Equalizer gatling cannon, and can be further equipped with a range of missiles and bombs on its 6 wing-mounted and four internal hardpoints. Compatible weapon systems include the AIM-120 AMRAAM air-to-air missile, the AGM-154 JSOW air-to-surface missile, the JSM anti-ship missile and the B61 nuclear bomb.

  • Maximum speed: Mach 1.6+ (1,200 mph, 1,930 km/h) (Tested to Mach 1.61)
  • Range: 1,200 nmi (2,220 km) on internal fuel
  • Combat radius: 584 nmi (1,080 km) on internal fuel
  • Service ceiling: 60,000 ft (18,288 m) (Tested to 43,000 ft)
  • Rate of climb: classified (not publicly available)
  • Wing loading: 91.4 lb/ft² (446 kg/m²; 526 kg/m2 loaded)
  • Thrust/weight:
    • With full fuel: 0.87
    • With 50% fuel: 1.07
  • g-Limits: 9 g (Only 4.6g in a sustained turn.)

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The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a military cargo plane, famed for its rugged quad-engine turboprop design and ability to use unpaved runways. Originally designed as a transport for infantry and heavy cargo, the C-130 has gone on to prove itself in a wide range of roles, including aerial assault, search and rescue, weather studies, mid-air refuelling and use as a seaborne patrol aircraft. The aircraft’s principal operators include the US Air Force (USAF), US Marine Corps and Britain’s Royal Air Force, but variants of the Hercules are currently serving in over 60 different countries. The C-130 has been in continuous production since 1954, and currently holds the record for the longest production run of a military plane or helicopter. Over 2,300 have been built, at a cost of $62 million per unit. It also holds the record for the heaviest aircraft to successfully land on an aircraft carrier.

Over 40 different variants of the C-130 have been produced, a testament to the versatility of its airframe. In its regular guise as a heavy lifter and troop transport, the C-130 can take a 45,000 pound (20,000 kg) payload inside its 40 foot cargo hold. In real terms, this could work out to 92 standard passengers, 64 airborne troops, six pallets, three Humvees or two M113 APCs. The aircraft is powered by four Allison T56-A-15 turboprop engines, each producing 4,590 shp of power, and can cruise at 292 knots with a range of 2,050 nautical miles.

The Hercules was conceived in the early 1950s as a replacement for the piston-engined transport planes that were in common use at the time. The USAF made its requirement known to many prominent aircraft manufacturers of the day, and was submitted designs from Boeing, Douglas, Airlifts Inc., Chase and Lockheed. The Air Force were impressed with the prototype C-130 they were shown, especially its custom designed T56 turboprop engines, which produced a fair higher power-to-weight ratio than contemporary piston engines. Lockheed won the contract, and delivered the USAF’s first Hercules planes in 1956. The first non-American force to operate the aircraft was the Royal Australian Air Force, which began running the Hercules in 1958.

  • Maximum speed: 320 knots (366 mph, 592 km/h) at 20,000 ft (6,060 m)
  • Cruise speed: 292 kn (336 mph, 540 km/h)
  • Range: 2,050 nmi (2,360 mi, 3,800 km)
  • Service ceiling: 33,000 ft (10,060 m) empty; 23,000 ft (7,077 m) with 42,000 pounds (19,090 kilograms) payload ()
  • Rate of climb: 1,830 ft/min (9.3 m/s)
  • Takeoff distance: 3,586 ft (1,093 m) at 155,000 lb (70,300 kg) max gross weight; 1,400 ft (427 m) at 80,000 lb (36,300 kg) gross weight


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The Lockheed Martin / Boeing F-22 Raptor is a fifth-generation fighter jet, currently in service with the United States Air Force (USAF). It is notable for being the first fifth-generation fighter to reach active service, as well as the USAF’s first supermaneuverable production aircraft. Concieved as an aerial superiority fighter, the F-22 incorporates stealth technology to increase battlefield survivability, and can also take on electronic warfare and surface strike roles if required. It was principally built by Lockheed Martin, with Boeing acting as a secondary contractor to provide part of the plane’s airframe and on board systems. Production ended in 2011 to make way for the forthcoming F-35 Lightning II.

The F-22 is powered by twin Pratt and Whitney F119 turbofan engines, each generating 23,500 pounds of thrust. This figure increases to over 35,000 pounds with afterburner engaged, and gives the Raptor a supercruise speed of Mach 1.82. The aircraft has a range of over 1,600 nautical miles, which can be extended to 1,840 with the addition of external fuel tanks. It is armed with a 20mm M61A2 Vulcan gatling cannon, and has four hardpoints under its wings. Most of the F-22’s armament is stored inside the fuselage of the aircraft in an effort to improve its stealth characteristics. It can be fitted with either air-to-air missiles, including the AIM-9 Sidewinder and AIM-120 AMRAAM, or small bombs such as the JDAM or GBU-39. The hardpoints can be used to increase weapons loadout or to carry 600 gallon external drop tanks.

The Raptor is currently only operated by the USAF, due in no small part to US Congress placing a ban on all F-22 exports. The Japanese government has expressed an interest in using the aircraft in its Replacement-Fighter program, but as of 2013 no move has been forthcoming. Congress, the Pentagon and the State Department would all need to ratify the sale if it were to go ahead.

195 Raptors were produced between 1996 and 2011, including eight test aircraft. With a cost per unit of $150 million, the total F-22 program is estimated to have cost around $66.7 billion. The aircraft’s cost was a major factor in the decision to end the Raptor program, as the replacement F-35 is a considerably cheaper option.

  • Maximum speed:
    • At altitude: Mach 2.25 (1,500 mph, 2,410 km/h) [estimated]
    • Supercruise: Mach 1.82 (1,220 mph, 1,963 km/h)
  • Range: >1,600 nmi (1,840 mi, 2,960 km) with 2 external fuel tanks
  • Combat radius: 410 nmi (with 100 nmi in supercruise) (471 mi, 759 km)
  • Ferry range: 2,000 mi (1,738 nmi, 3,219 km)
  • Service ceiling: 65,000 ft (currently restricted to 44,000 ft, sans vests) (19,812 m)
  • Rate of climb: 40,000+ ft/min (200 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 77 lb/ft² (375 kg/m²)
  • Thrust/weight: 1.05 (1.26 with loaded weight & 50% fuel)
  • Maximum design g-load: -3.0/+9.0 g